abortion, 32

absent class members, 18096. See also class actions; adequacy of notice, 3035, 307; adequacy of representation, 18096, 3045; collateral attacks, 18688; judgments, 184, 188; minimum contact with forum state, 200 nn.3435, 3067; notice, 152; opt out option, 184, 3067; parties bound by judgment, 18596

access to the courts, 10916; appellate review, 113; civil cases, 11314; criminal cases, 11013; debtors, 11314; divorce claimants, 11314; indigent parties, 11011, 11314, 115; paternity cases, 115; prisoners, 11011, 127 nn.5758; welfare benefits, 11415

accidents, automobile, 130, 216, 236, 27478

acquittals, 98

action, notice of, 13034, 247

actual notice, 13546, 301

adequacy of notice. See notice, adequacy of

adequacy of postdeprivation hearings, 79

adequacy of remedy, 72, 75, 7778, 305

adequacy of representation. See representation, adequacy of

administrative and judicial settlements, 19596

administrative costs, 68, 71, 7374, 9092. See also Eldridge balancing test

administrative notice, 9599

Administrative Procedure Act (APA), 1078

administrative segregation of prisoners, 4647, 60 n.81, 73, 84, 86, 89

admiralty actions, 136, 302, 316

adoption, 8485

advertising, 233

after-acquired domicile, 278, 28081, 322

Agent Orange, 151, 161 n.51

agents (for foreign corporations), 21517

aggregated contacts rule, 249

airlines, 189

alien defendants, 313

aliens, 2224, 52 n.6, 292. See also enemy aliens

Allstate test, 27475, 27983, 324

amended pleading, 171

Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA), 241, 31415

Antifederalists, 45

appellate review: access to the courts, 113; prisoners, 11213; right to, 10916; right to counsel, 100, 11213; statement of reasons, 9798

appointed counsel, 100

arbitrary government, 3, 6, 290

arbitrary or fundamental unfairness, 280, 282, 296

Articles of Confederation, 3

asbestos, 151

attorneys, 175. See also counsel, right to

attorneys' fees, 117

automobiles: abandoned, 141; accidents, 130, 216, 236, 27478; impoundment or seizure of, 76, 143

 

Bailey, Dorothy, 3334

balancing test. See Eldridge balancing test

banking, 70, 73, 76, 243

bankruptcy, 142, 146, 19394, 301

Bankruptcy Act, 114

bar (claim preclusion), 16465, 175

Beale, Joseph, 266

bench trials, 98

beyond a reasonable doubt, 1037

Bill of Rights, 46

"bitter with the sweet" theory, 36

Blackmun, Harry A., 89, 27475

Borchers, Patrick, 210

Bradley, Joseph P., 10

Brandeis, Louis D., 28586 n.14

breach of contract suits, 75

Brennan, William J. Jr., 38, 237, 246, 27475

bright-line rule, 184

Brilmayer, Lea, 231

brokerage firms, 150

Burke, Olive and James, 172

businesses, foreign, 21524, 235, 26768

"but for" test, 232, 313

 

capital punishment: decisionmakers, 82; life interests, 32; opportunity to submit evidence, 8586; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 9394; right to counsel, 100

cars. See automobiles

Casad, Robert, 250

child custody, 8687

children, 59 n.73

choice of law, 26383; class actions, 281; foreseeability, 277; Fourteenth Amendment, 26383; state courts, 26383, 284 n.2, 319; state interests, 26971, 27478, 321, 323; statute of limitations, 28283, 323

citizen-detainees, 2324, 7172, 84. See also unlawful combatants

civil cases: access to the courts, 11314; form of notice, 145; standard of proof, 106

civil rights, 9, 159 n.40, 291, 302

Civil Rights Act (of 1866), 8, 194

Civil Rights Act (of 1991), 304

claim preclusion, 16465, 175

class actions, 14753. See also absent class members; Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 23; adequacy of notice, 15152, 172, 19496, 3023, 307; adequacy of representation, 17374, 18096, 308; choice of law, 281; collateral attacks, 18688; de facto, 195; Fifth Amendment, 200 n.35; form of notice, 145, 14853; Fourteenth Amendment, 200 n.35; hybrid, 150, 15960 n.45, 18283, 3023; injunctive relief, 183; judgments, 17176, 18588; judgment without jurisdiction or notice, 18283; mandatory, 18285, 307; minimum contacts with forum state, 18083; monetary damages, 18385, 202 n.50; Mullane test, 144, 152, 194; multistate cases, 323; nonparty preclusion, 3034; notice by mail or publication, 15052; opt out option, 18285, 202 n.50, 3023, 3067; parties bound by judgments, 18093, 305; relief, 183; settlements, 153, 307; significant or substantial contact, 27981; Title VII, 307; unknown and unknowing class members, 152, 161 n.51, 182

clear and convincing evidence, 1037

clemency, 50

Coke, Sir Edward, 23

collateral attacks, 16769, 18688, 194, 305, 307

collateral estoppel, 16465, 175, 18688

colonial era, 3, 61

combatants, unlawful, 2324, 5253 nn.712

common knowledge, 9599

communism, 42

commutation of a sentence, 50, 98

comparative impairment, 269

compensatory damages, 11618

component parts, 23637

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), 195

compulsion test, 2830

computer errors, 74

concurrent property owners, 179

condemnation actions, 13435

confrontation of witnesses. See witnesses, right to confront and cross-examine

Congress, 7

consent, 130, 21517, 219

consent decrees, 16869, 194, 305

Constitution, United States, 46, 7

Constitutional Convention, 45

Continental Congress, 4

continuous and systematic contacts, 22933

contracts, 180, 19091, 26569, 273

contract theory, 29899

contractual relations, interference with, 239

control of litigation, 17476

copyright infringement, 239

corporal punishment, 73, 75

corporations: consent, 217; foreign (out of state), 21524, 235, 26768, 31213; judgments, 175; personal jurisdiction, 244; as persons, 24; private, 24

counsel, right to, 99103; appellate review, 100, 11213; appointed, 100; capital punishment, 100; criminal cases, 100; delay of hearings, 99; Eldridge balancing test, 100, 102; indigent parties, 100103, 124 n.37; juvenile offenders, 100101; liberty interests, 100103; mental hospitals and patients, 101; parental rights, 102; parole or probation revocation, 101, 12425 n.41; prisoners, 100103, 11213, 125 n.43; school suspensions and expulsions, 103; sex offenders, 100; Sixth Amendment, 99

courts. See federal courts; state courts

courts, access to. See access to the courts

covenants, 17174

creditors, 13839

criminal cases: access to the courts, 11013; decisionmakers, 83; delay of hearings, 77; Eldridge balancing test, 119 n.5; fairness, 291; interpreters, 90; Patterson test, 119 n.5; right to call witnesses, 90; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 94; right to counsel, 100; standard of proof, 104

cross-examination of witnesses. See witnesses, right to confront and cross-examine

Crosskey, William W., 6, 11

cruel and unusual punishment, 32

custody, 8687

cyberspace, 23941, 31415

 

damages: compensatory, 117; incidental, 201 n.43, 201 n.45; monetary, 11617, 18385, 201 n.41, 202 n.50; punitive, 117; remedies, 75, 11618

death penalty. See capital punishment

debtors, 74, 11314, 214

decisionmakers: capital punishment, 82; criminal cases, 83; decision based on evidence, 96; enemy combatants, 8283; impartiality and qualifications of, 66, 7984, 121 n.16; involuntary commitment, 83; lay judges, 83; matters of common knowledge and indisputable fact, 96; Medicare benefits, 83; parole or probation revocation, 81, 83; pecuniary interests of, 8182; review of, 81; standard of proof, 1037; state actors as, 80

Declaration of Independence, 3

declaratory relief, 183

de facto class action, 195

de facto representation, 19093

defamation actions, 240

defend, opportunity to, 20911

definition (of due process), 1, 11

delay of hearings, 7577, 99

deleterious substances, 151

demolition of real property, 140

denial of access complaint, 116

Department of Labor, 95

deportation cases, 90

deprivations: compensation for, 11618; Eldridge balancing test, 7172; erroneous, 6568, 74, 79, 94; liberty interests, 78; parental rights, 72; police officers, 73; property interests, 72, 76, 78; public utilities, 72, 75; school suspensions and expulsions, 72, 73; severity, length and finality of, 67, 72; state actors, 79; welfare benefits, 72

dignity theory, 298

direct action statute, 271

disability benefits hearings, 6668, 88, 94

discriminatory practices, 16869, 194, 284 n.3

divorce claimants, 11015

doing business test, 219

domain names, 241

domicile, 21718, 284 n.3; after-acquired, 278, 28081, 322

doubt, beyond a reasonable, 1037

drivers' licenses, 37, 74

due diligence, 133

 

Easterbrook, Frank H., 6

economic advantage, interference with prospective, 239

effects test, 23839, 315

Eighth Amendment, 32

Eldridge balancing test, 6667, 298; criminal cases, 119 n.5; hearings, 6566, 7176; liberty interests, 68, 7175; parental rights, 1056; public interests, 68; right to call witnesses, 9091; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 93; right to counsel, 100, 102; standard of proof, 1056; statement of reasons, 99

Ely, John Hart, 31

e-mail, notice by, 142, 300

employees. See public employees

employers, 175

employment discrimination, 194

enemy aliens, 2324, 71, 292. See also aliens; enemy combatants

enemy combatants, 2324. See also enemy aliens; adequacy of notice, 84; decisionmakers, 8283; liberty interests, 7172; opportunity to submit evidence, 86

English law, 23, 7

entitlements, 3639, 65, 29495, 297. See also government benefits

entitlement theory, 29495

environmental actions, 190, 19495

Equal Protection Clause, 9, 110

erroneous deprivations, 6568, 74, 79, 94

eviction actions, 135

evidence, 6768, 8589, 9499, 1037, 122 n.21

evidence, opportunity to submit, 8587, 122 n.21

evidentiary hearings, 6568, 79

"exclusive public function" test, 28, 30

executors, 17980

exigent circumstances exception, 69, 7075, 77, 244

ex parte findings, 74

express consent, 21516

expulsions. See school suspensions and expulsions

 

facts, indisputable, 9599

fairness or reasonableness factors, 21928, 231, 237

fair warning, 234

Farina, Cynthia, 3334, 39

fax, notice by, 142, 300

federal agencies, 1079

Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), 144

federal courts, 16667, 24750, 31718

federalism, interstate, 22425, 311

federal judgments, 16667

Federal Magistrates Act, 119 n.5

Federal Power Commission (FPC), 279

Federal Register, 195

Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. See also class actions: Rule 4, 244, 24750, 318; Rule 15, 171; Rule 23, 14753, 169, 182, 184, 200 n.35, 201 n.41, 202 n.50, 303

fee limitations, 103

Fen-Phen, 151

Field, Stephen J., 25253 n.14

Fifth Amendment: aliens, 2224; class actions, 200 n.35; contrasted with Fourteenth Amendment, 15 n.2; grand juries, 1011; jurisdiction of federal courts, 31718; origins of, 6; personal jurisdiction, 24750; political subdivisions, 2527; private corporations, 24; unlawful combatants, 2324

filing fees, 11014

financial and administrative burden, 68, 71, 7374, 9092. See also Eldridge balancing test

First Amendment Petition Clause, 110

foreclosure actions, 13940, 14547, 301

foreign defendants, 313

foreign (out of state) corporations, 21524, 235, 26768, 31213

foreseeability, 23436, 27273, 276, 277, 319

forfeiture, 144, 158 n.37

Fourteenth Amendment: aliens, 2224; choice of law, 26383; class actions, 200 n.35; contrasted with Fifth Amendment, 15 n.2; Due Process Clause, 9; Equal Protection Clause, 9, 110; grand juries, 1011; interpretation, 1011; judgment without jurisdiction, 209; judgment without jurisdiction or notice, 13; jurisdiction of state courts, 1214; limited protection of, 10; notice, form of, 13031; origins of, 89; personal jurisdiction, 209; political subdivisions, 2527; private corporations, 24; universality of provisions, 22; unlawful combatants, 5253 nn.712

fraud, 239

Freedmen's Bureau Act, 8

Friendly, Henry, 79, 12021 n.13

Fullerton, Maryellen, 250

Full Faith and Credit Clause. See also state courts: choice of law, 264, 319; jurisdiction of state courts, 13, 16668, 20810, 309; statute of limitations, 28182

fundamental unfairness, 280, 282

 

garnishment, 72, 75, 214, 242, 26768

general jurisdiction, 22833, 31213. See also personal jurisdiction

Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 187

good name, 4245

government action, regulation of, 2730

governmental interest analysis, 269

government benefits, 3435, 3739, 55 n.32, 6566, 29495, 297. See also entitlements

government interests. See public interests

government representation, 18890, 2034 n.58

grand juries, 1011

Guantanamo Bay, 2324

guardians, 17980

 

habeas corpus, writ of, 10916

handbills, 13436

Hansberry, Carl, 172

Harlan, John M., 11

harness horse racing, 73

Health, Education and Welfare, Department of (HEW), 66

hearings. See also evidentiary hearings; postdeprivation hearings; predeprivation hearings: adequacy of, 79; delay of, 7577; Eldridge balancing test, 6566, 7176; fairness, 79, 12021 n.13, 299; liberty interests, 68; nature of, 79; opportunity to be heard, 69, 8687, 16364, 168, 3045; timing of, 6364, 6670, 7578

historical precedent, 11, 14, 291

Holmes, Oliver W. Jr., 33, 63, 266

horse racing, 73

horse trainers, 37, 74

Howard, Jacob, 9

hybrid class actions, 150, 15960 n.45, 18283, 3023

 

identification of affected parties, 13442

identity of interests, 193

immigration, 292

implied consent, 130, 21516, 219

importance test, 31

impoundment, 76, 143

imprisonment. See prisoners

incidental damages, 201 n.43

indictment, 81

indigent parties: access to the courts, 11011, 11315; divorce claimants, 11314; right to counsel, 100103, 124 n.37

information (formal criminal charge), 1011

injunctions, 16970, 183

inmates. See prisoners

in personam actions, 130, 13334

in personam jurisdiction. See personal jurisdiction

in rem actions, 12931, 13334, 241

in rem jurisdiction, 21213, 22224, 31415. See also personal jurisdiction

insanity defense, 12526 nn.45

insurance actions, 82, 175, 214, 242, 26669, 27278, 320

intangible property, 214, 222

intentional conduct, 239

interest, successors in, 17679, 199 n.27

interest representation, 3045

interests. See joint interests; liberty interests; property interests; public interests; state interests

international law, 20810

Internet, 23941, 31415

interpreters, 90, 122 nn.2627

interstate commerce, 21819

interstate federalism, 22425, 311

involuntary commitment. See also mental hospitals and patients; prisoners, transfers to mental hospitals: decisionmakers, 83; liberty interests, 78; standard of proof, 1045

involuntary psychiatric or medical treatment, 80, 107, 123 n.38

irrebuttable presumptions, 86

issue preclusion, 16465, 175, 18688

 

Jefferson, Thomas, 4

joinder, 16974, 3034

joint interests, 17679

"joint participation" test, 2830

Jones, Shirley, 23839

judges, lay, 83

judgments: absent class members, 18488; adequacy of notice, 19496; adequacy of representation, 17996; class actions, 17176, 18588, 305; collateral attacks, 194; consent decrees, 194; corporations, 175; federal, 16667; government representation, 18890; identity of interests, 193; legal relationships, 19093; nonparty preclusion, 16876, 19093, 19798 n.12, 3034; opportunity to be heard, 16364; parens patriae, 18890; parties bound by, 17196, 305; parties not bound by, 16465; preclusion principles, 16465; public interests, 18890; real property, 177; of state courts, 166, 209, 212; successors in interest, 199 n.27; without jurisdiction or notice, 13, 18 n.77, 19 n.82, 14546, 16768, 18283, 209, 218

judicial or administrative notice, 9599

judicial review, 9798, 1079, 296

jurisdiction, legislative, 26566, 269

jurisdiction by necessity, 244

justice, equal access to, 110

juvenile offenders: adequacy of notice, 84; mental hospitals, 82; notice, amount required, 154; right to appear in person, 88; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 93; right to counsel, 100101; standard of proof, 104

 

Kamp, Allen, 172

 

Labor, Department of, 95

labor unions, 2425

law, license to practice, 37, 57 n.51

law libraries, 11213

Law of Nations, 210

law of the land, 23, 5

lay judges, 83

legal materials, access to, 110, 11213

legal relationships, 17980, 19093

legislative jurisdiction, 26566, 269

legislature, 8, 11

lex loci contractus rule. See territoriality principle

libel, 23839

liberty interests, 4150; adequacy of remedy, 75; children, 59 n.73; citizen-detainees, 7172; clemency, 50; contracts, 26667; deprivation, 78; Eldridge balancing test, 68, 7175; enemy combatants, 7172; hearings, 68; involuntary commitment, 78; nature of, 29697; parole or probation revocation, 4950, 61 n.84; personal jurisdiction, 225; prisoners, 4549, 58 n.67, 59 nn.7475, 71, 107; reputation, 4245, 59 nn.6970; right to call witnesses, 90; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 93; right to counsel, 100102; sex offenders, 44; standard of proof, 1045, 107

libraries, law, 11213

licenses, driver's or professional, 37, 57 n.51

life interests, 3233

loans, 26667

long-arm statute, 243, 248, 318

 

Madison, James, 5

magistrates, testimony before, 8990

Magna Carta, 13, 5

mail, notice by. See notice by mail

mandatory class actions, 18285, 307

Marshall, Lawrence C., 79

Marshall, Thurgood, 38, 27475

McCarthyism, 34

McCoid, John, 180

Medicaid benefits, 38, 57 n.53

medical evidence, 6768, 8889, 94

Medicare benefits, 38, 80, 8283

medicine, license to practice, 37, 57 n.50

Megan's Law, 44, 87

mental hospitals and patients, 45, 78, 82, 101, 107. See also involuntary commitment; prisoners, transfers to mental hospitals

merger, 165

Meyer, Hermine Herta, 2, 20910

Miller, Arthur R., 152, 174, 17677

minimum contacts: absent class members, 200 nn.3435, 3067; class actions, 18083; test, 21928, 23335, 23738, 24546, 249, 31011, 31516

Monaghan, Henry Paul, 31

monetary damages, 11617, 18385, 201 n.41, 202 n.50

money, forfeiture of, 144, 158 n.37

mortgagees, 137, 146

Mott, Rodney, 3, 6

Mullane test, 132, 144, 146, 152, 194, 300

multistate cases, 26383, 323

municipalities, 2527

Mushlin, Michael, 243

 

national security interests, 7071

Native Americans, 2034 n.58

Navigation Acts, 3

necessity, jurisdiction by, 244

negligent acts, 5051, 7778

New Deal, 211, 269

"nexus" test, 2830

no-action clause, 271

nonarbitrariness theory, 296

noncitizens, 2224, 29192, 313

nonclaim statutes, 138, 301

non-English speakers, 90, 122 nn.2627

non-judicial decisionmakers, 83

nonparties. See also joinder: adequacy of notice, 193, 19496; adequacy of representation, 193; bound by judgment, 16876, 19093, 19798 n.12, 3034; control of litigation, 17476; identity of interests, 193; settlements, 19596

nonparty preclusion, 3034

nonresidents, 130, 21214, 216, 222

Northwest Ordinance, 4

notice, actual, 13546, 301

notice, adequacy of: absent class members, 303, 307; adequacy of representation, 204 n.64, 3045; adoption, 8485; class actions, 15152, 172, 19496, 3023, 307; enemy combatants, 84; foreclosure actions, 14647; judgments, 19496; juvenile offenders, 84; mortgagees, 146; nonparties, 193, 19496; notice by mail, 145; notice by publication, 19496; parental rights, 8485, 12122 n.20; parties bound by judgments, 19496; prisoners, 84; public utilities, 147; real property, 146; request-notice statutes, 140; school suspensions and expulsions, 84; taxes, 146, 300301; welfare benefits, 84

notice, administrative, 9599

notice, amount required, 15354

notice, form of, 12936. See also actual notice; notice, adequacy of; notice by e-mail or fax; notice by mail; notice by posting; notice by publication; absent class members, 152; bankruptcy, 142, 146, 301; civil cases, 145; class actions, 145, 14853; employee benefits, 145; foreclosure actions, 13940; Fourteenth Amendment, 13031; identification of affected parties, 13442; mortgagees, 137; Mullane test, 13133, 144, 300; to non-state residents, 130; partnerships, 141; prisoners, 14254; property interests, 13036; reasonably calculated to reach recipient, 14345, 149; reasonably identifiable parties, 13442; taxes, 13940; without service of process, 13134

notice, judgment without, 13, 14546

notice, judicial or administrative, 9599

notice by e-mail or fax, 142, 300

notice by mail, 133, 142; adequacy of, 145; class actions, 150; property interests, 134; real property, 134, 13637

notice by posting, 13436

notice by publication: adequacy of, 19496; class actions, 15152; in personam actions, 13334; probate, 138; property interests, 134; in rem actions, 12931, 13334; trust funds, 13132

 

occupation taxes, 192

O'Connor, Sandra Day, 35, 38, 137, 23738, 287 n.41

oil companies, 27981

opportunity to be heard, 61 n.84, 69, 8687, 16364, 168, 3045

opportunity to defend, 20911

opportunity to submit evidence, 8587, 122 n.21

option contracts, 19091

opt out option, 18285, 202 n.50, 3023, 3067

oral testimony, 8788

origins (of due process clause), 16, 9

Otis, James, 3

 

parens patriae, 18890

parental interests and rights: adequacy of notice, 8485, 12122 n.20; children, 59 n.73; deprivations, 72; Eldridge balancing test, 1056; opportunity to submit evidence, 8687; paternity cases, 11516; right to counsel, 102; standard of proof, 1056; termination of, 8485, 102, 1056, 11516

Parliament, 23

parole revocation: decisionmakers, 81, 83; liberty interests, 4950, 61 n.84; opportunity to be heard, 61 n.84, 69; right to appear in person, 88; right to call witnesses, 92; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 93; right to counsel, 101, 12425 n.41; statement of reasons, 9798

parties bound by judgments, 17196, 305

parties not bound by judgment, 16465

partnerships, 24, 141

party expectations. See foreseeability

patent infringement, 170, 232, 240

paternity cases, 1067, 11516

Patriot Act, 29192

Patterson test, 119 n.5

pecuniary interests, 8182, 189

pending action, 178, 199 n.27

Pennock, J. Roland, 11

Perdue, Wendy Collins, 211

person, definition of, 2127, 198 n.18

personal appearance, right to, 8790

personal jurisdiction, 16768. See also general jurisdiction; in rem jurisdiction; quasi-in-rem jurisdiction; transient jurisdiction; specific jurisdiction; advertising, 233; aggregated contacts rule, 249; but for test, 232; consent, 21517; corporations, 244; cyberspace, 23941, 31415; domicile, 21718; due process, 20710; effects test, 23839; fairness or reasonableness, 21924, 237; fair warning, 234; federal courts, 24750, 31718; Fifth Amendment, 24750; foreseeability, 23436; Fourteenth Amendment, 209; interstate federalism, 22425, 311; judgment without, 13, 16768, 209, 218; jurisdiction by necessity, 244; liberty interests, 225; limits on, 21011; minimum contacts test, 21924, 23738, 24146, 249, 31011, 31516; nonresident motorists, 216; opportunity to defend, 20911; patent infringement, 232; products liability, 23438; proximate cause standard, 232; purchases and sales, 232; purposeful availment, 23335, 240; quasi-in-rem. See quasi-in-rem jurisdiction; real property. See in rem jurisdiction; reasonableness factors, 21924, 237, 31011, 312; securities, 233; sliding scale analysis, 240; of state courts, 1214, 19 n.82, 209, 309; stream-of-commerce actions, 23538

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, 39

personal service of process. See service of process

Pierce, Richard, 39

pleading, amended, 171

police officers, 73

political organizations, 177

political subdivisions, 2527, 264, 293

postconviction proceedings, 113

postdeprivation hearings: adequacy of, 79; delay of, 7576; due process, 64; effectiveness of, 7475; timeliness of, 69, 7577

posting, notice by, 13436

postjudgment joinder, 17071

preclusion principles, 16466, 17679, 19096. See also claim preclusion; issue preclusion; nonparty preclusion

predeprivation hearings, 65, 69, 74, 78

preponderance of evidence, 1037

presence test, 22021

presumptions, irrebuttable, 86

prior involvement, 80

prisoners: access to legal materials, 110, 11213; access to the courts, 11011, 127 nn. 5758; adequacy of notice, 84; adequacy of remedy, 7778; administrative segregation, 4647, 60 n.81, 73, 84, 86, 89; amount of notice required, 154; compensatory damages, 118; decision based on evidence, 96; form of notice, 14254; interpreters, 90; involuntary psychiatric or medical treatment, 80, 107, 123 n.38; liberty interests, 4549, 58 n.67, 59 nn.7475, 71, 107; limits on official discretion, 46; public interests, 1023; right to appeal, 11213; right to appear in person, 89; right to call witnesses, 91, 12223 n.28; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 93; right to counsel, 100103, 11213, 125 n.43; section 1983 (of 42 U.S.C.), 118; solitary confinement, 4647; standard of proof, 107; statement of reasons, 98, 123 n.33; transfers to mental hospitals, 4547, 80, 90, 93, 97, 101, 123. n.38; visitation, 46

Prison Litigation Reform Act of 1995, 128 n.61

private citizens, interests of, 18990

private conduct, 27

private corporations, 24

private parties as state actors, 2830, 54 n.20

private property, 7, 1718 n.59. See also property interests

Privileges and Immunities Clause, 110, 21517, 284 n.3

privity, 193, 204 n.63

probable cause, 74, 77

probate, 13839, 19394, 3012

probation revocation: liberty interests, 50; opportunity to be heard, 69; right to appear in person, 88; right to call witnesses, 90; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 93; right to counsel, 101, 12425 n.41; statement of reasons, 9798

procedural safeguards, 65, 6768

products liability, 151, 23438, 271. See also stream-of-commerce actions

professional licenses, 37

prompt action, pressing need for, 71

proof. See evidence

proof, standard of. See standard of proof

property, intangible, 214, 222

property, real. See real property

property, seizure of, 6971, 7677, 143

property interests, 3341. See also private property; adequacy of remedy, 75; contracts, 26769; deprivations, 72, 76, 78; entitlements, 3637, 29495; form of notice, 13036; government benefits, 3739, 6566, 297; identification of affected parties, 140; intangible property, 214, 222; Medicaid, 57 n.53; notice by mail or publication, 134; professional licenses, 37; public employees, 3341, 305; right/privilege distinction, 3337; right to call witnesses, 90; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 95; standard of proof, 104; timeliness of hearings, 7778; welfare benefits, 3435, 3839; workers' compensation benefits, 35

property owners, concurrent, 179

prospective economic advantage, interference with, 239

protected interests. See liberty interests; life interests; property interests

proximate cause standard, 232

proxy, representation by, 19093

psychiatric or medical treatment, involuntary, 80, 107, 123 n.38

publication, notice by. See notice by publication

public employees: notice, 154; property interests, 3341, 305; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 93; termination or suspension of, 3334, 56 n.46, 69, 7274, 86, 154

public health and safety, 70, 73, 216

public interests. See also state interests: delay of hearings, 76; Eldridge balancing test, 68; parties bound by judgments, 18890; prisoners, 1023; public health and safety, 70, 73, 216; right to appear in person, 89; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 9394; right to counsel, 1023; seizure of property, 7071

public roads and highways, 73

public universities, 3941, 86

public utilities, 72, 75, 86, 147

punitive damages, 117

purposeful availment requirement, 23338, 240, 31011, 314

 

quasi-in-rem jurisdiction. See also personal jurisdiction: corporations, 244; foreign (out-of-state) corporations, 26768; jurisdiction by necessity, 244; minimum contacts test, 24144, 31516; nonresident property owners, 21314, 222; state courts, 243

 

random and unauthorized conduct, 7779

real property: adequacy of notice, 146; demolitions of, 140; foreclosure actions, 145; judgments, 177; notice by mail or publication, 134, 13637; personal jurisdiction. See in rem jurisdiction

reasonable doubt, 1037

reasonable grounds, 74

reasonableness factors, 21928, 231, 237, 31012, 318

reasonably identifiable parties, 13442

reasons, statement of, 9799, 123 n.33

receipt of notice. See actual notice

Redish, Martin H., 79

Rehnquist, William H., 3536

Reich, Charles, 3335

relatedness, 22829, 23132, 313

remedial schemes, 19396

remedy, adequacy of, 72, 75, 7778, 305

remedy, damages, 75, 11618

representation, adequacy of: absent class members, 18096, 3045; adequacy of notice, 204 n.64, 3045; class actions, 17374, 18099, 308; government representation, 2034 n.58; issue preclusion, 18688; joinder, 17374; nonparties, 193; parties bound by judgment, 17374, 17996

representation, government, 18890

representation, virtual, 19093

representation by proxy, 19093

reputation, 4245, 59 nn.6970

request-notice statutes, 140

res judicata, 16465, 175

Restatement (First) of Conflict of Laws, 266

Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws, 238, 269

Restatement (Second) of Judgments, 16465, 17679, 188

Revised Uniform Partnership Act, 24

Rheinstein, Max, 210

right/privilege distinction, 3337, 50, 55 n.35, 56 n.42, 294

right to appear in person, 8790

right to call witnesses. See witnesses, right to call

right to counsel. See counsel, right to

right to die, 32

roads and highways, 73

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 269

royalty payments, 279, 281

Rule 4. See Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

Rule 15. See Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

Rule 23. See Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

Rutland, Robert, 4

 

Scalia, Antonin, 245, 28182

school districts, 2627, 53 n.16, 54 n.18

school suspensions and expulsions, 81; adequacy of notice, 84; deprivations, 72, 73; right to call witnesses, 91; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 94; right to counsel, 103

section 1983 (of 42 U.S.C.), 11618, 128 n.61

securities, 150, 233

Securities Exchange Act of 1934, 248

segregation, administrative. See administrative segregation of prisoners

seizure of property, 6971, 7776, 143

September 11th, 23, 292

service of process. See also notice: domicile, 21718; form of notice, 13034; judgment without, 13, 18 n.77, 19 n.82, 218; nationwide, 248; Rule 4 of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, 24750

settlements, 153, 19596, 307

sex offenders, 44, 87, 90, 93, 100

shareholder's derivative action, 222

shopping malls, 177

Silberman, Linda, 244

Singer, Joseph, 283

Sixth Amendment: interpreters, 122 nn.2627; right to call witnesses, 90; right to confront and cross-examine witnesses, 92; right to counsel, 99

slave of the State, 4549

slavery, 1718 n.59

sliding scale analysis, 240

social legislation, 211, 269

Social Security Administration, 6668

solitary confinement, 4647

Souter, David H., 187

sovereignty, 21718, 31718

sovereignty, state. See state sovereignty

specific jurisdiction, 22833, 31213. See also personal jurisdiction

stacking law, 27478

Stamp Act, 3

standard of proof, 1037, 12526 nn.4445; civil cases, 106; criminal cases, 104; decisionmakers, 1037; Eldridge balancing test, 1056; involuntary commitment, 1045; juvenile offenders, 104; liberty interests, 1045, 107; mental illness, 107; parental rights, 1056; paternity cases, 1067; prisoners, 107; property interests, 104; state courts, 1047

standing, lack of, 188

state action, 2730, 138, 293

state actors: as decisionmakers, 80; definition of, 2830, 293; negligent acts, 5051, 7778; private parties as, 2830, 54 n.20; random and unauthorized conduct, 7779

"state compulsion" test, 28

state courts. See also Full Faith and Credit Clause: choice of law, 26383, 284 n.2, 319; federal judgments, 16667; interstate federalism, 22425; judgments, 166, 209; jurisdiction, 1214, 19 n.82, 16668, 20810, 212, 309; long-arm statute, 243; minimum contacts test, 21924, 24546; procedural rules, 9, 12; quasi-in-rem jurisdiction, 243; standard of proof, 1047; state sovereignty, 212, 22425; statute of limitations, 28183

state interests. See also public interests: choice of law, 26971, 27478, 321, 323; significant or substantial contact, 27781; statute of limitations, 28183

statement of reasons, 9799, 123 n.33

state of mind requirement, 5051

state representation, 18890

states: citizenship, 10, 284 n.3; compulsion test, 2830; constitutions, 3; contracts, 26569, 273; corporations, 21517; nonresidents, 212, 216; power over relationships, 11316, 264, 270; unemployment assessments, 220; universities, 86

state sovereignty, 311, 321. See also state courts, jurisdiction; Full Faith and Credit Clause, 264; jurisdiction of state courts, 212, 22425

statute of limitations, 28183, 323

Stevens, John Paul, 75, 89, 187, 237, 246, 27677, 280

Stevens, Thaddeus, 9

stocks, 150, 233

stream-of-commerce actions, 23538

submission of evidence, 8587, 122 n.21

submissions, written, 8788

substantive due process, 1, 85, 21011, 265

substantive relevance test, 23132, 313

successors in interest, 17679, 199 n.27

summary actions, 7071, 7374

Supremacy Clause, 5, 26

Surface Transportation Assistance Act of 1982, 95

Suspension Clause, 110

suspension of employees. See public employees

suspensions, school. See school suspensions and expulsions

 

tag jurisdiction, 24447

Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act, 141

taxes: adequacy of notice, 146, 300301; challenge to, 189; delinquent, 13637, 14041; form of notice, 13940; occupation, 192; partnerships, 141

tenure, 3941

termination of parental rights. See parental interests and rights, termination of

termination or suspension of employees. See public employees

territoriality principle, 26571

terrorism, war on, 2324, 29192

testimony, oral, 8788

testimony before magistrate, 8990

The New Property (Reich), 3335

timing of hearings. See hearings, timing of

Title VII, 307

trademark infringement, 23940

transcript costs, 11012, 127 n.56

transfer of prisoners. See prisoners, transfers to mental hospitals

Transgrud, Roger, 210

transient jurisdiction, 24447, 31617. See also personal jurisdiction

Trautman, Donald T., 228

truck drivers, 95

trustees, 17980

trust funds, 13132

tuition, 86

Twitchell, Mary, 22829, 231

 

unauthorized conduct, 7779

unemployment assessments, 220

unfair surprise. See foreseeability

unincorporated associations, 24

unitary concept of life, liberty or property, 31, 295

universities, public, 3941, 86

unknown and unknowing class members, 152, 161 n.51, 182

unlawful combatants, 2324, 5253 nn.712. See also citizen-detainees

utilities, public, 72, 75, 86, 147

utility theory, 29798

 

"vested" rights theory, 266

veteran's benefits, 38, 103

virtual representation, 19093

visitation of prisoners, 46

von Mehren, Arthur T., 228

 

war on terrorism, 2324, 29192

Washington, George, 4

wealth, 3435

websites, 23941

welfare benefits: access to the courts, 11415; adequacy of notice, 84; deprivations, 72; opportunity to be heard, 69; pretermination hearings, 65; property interests, 3435, 3839; right to appear in person, 8788

White, Byron R., 246, 27475

Whitten, Ralph, 12, 210

Wigmore, John H., 92

witnesses, right to call, 9093; criminal cases, 90; Eldridge balancing test, 9091; liberty interests, 90; parole or probation revocation, 90, 92; prisoners, 90, 12223 n.28; property interests, 90; school suspensions and expulsions, 91; sex offenders, 90; Sixth Amendment, 90

witnesses, right to confront and cross-examine, 9295, 121 n.17; capital punishment, 9394; criminal cases, 94; disability benefits hearings, 94; Eldridge balancing test, 93; erroneous deprivations, 94; juvenile offenders, 93; liberty interests, 93; parole or probation revocation, 93; prisoners, 93; property interests, 95; public employees, 93; public interests, 9394; school suspensions and expulsions, 94; sex offenders, 93; Sixth Amendment, 92

workers' compensation statutes, 29, 35, 27071

Wright, Charles Alan, 152, 174, 17677

writ of habeas corpus, 10916

written submissions, 8788

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